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Below are some publications directly relating to Volcanic Alert Level Systems. We are still populating this list, so keep an eye out for more to come. We encourage additions - please contact us with the full citation and links to open access articles.



Donovan, A., Ayala, I. A., Eiser, J. R., & Sparks, R. S. J. (2018). Risk perception at a persistently active volcano: warnings and trust at Popocatépetl volcano in Mexico, 2012–2014. Bulletin of Volcanology80(5), 47.

Fearnley, C. J., & Beaven, S. (2018). Volcano alert level systems: managing the challenges of effective volcanic crisis communication. Bulletin of Volcanology80(5), 46.

Fearnley, C.J, Winson, A. E. G., Pallister, J., & Tilling, R. (2017). Volcano crisis communication: challenges and solutions in the 21st century. In Observing the Volcano World: Volcanic Crisis Communication. C. J. Fearnley, D. Bird, G. Jolly, K. Haynes and B. McGuire, Springer: 350. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/11157_2017_28 

Fearnley, C. J. (2013). Assigning a volcano alert level: negotiating uncertainty, risk, and complexity in decision-making processes. Environment and Planning A 45(8): 1891-1911.

Fearnley, C. J., McGuire, W. J., Davies, G., Twigg, J. (2012). Standardisation of the USGS Volcano Alert Level System (VALS): analysis and ramifications. Bulletin of Volcanology 74(9): 2023-2036.

Fearnley, C. J. (2011). Standardising the USGS volcano alert level system: acting in the context of risk, uncertainty and complexity. Ph.D. thesis. London, UK, University College London: 306.

Leonard, G. and S. Potter (2015). Developing effective communication tools for volcanic hazards in New Zealand, using social science. In Global volcanic hazards and risk. S. C. Loughlin, S. Sparks, S. K. Brown, S. F. Jenkins and C. Vye-Brown. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press: 305-310.

Papale, P. (2017). Rational volcanic hazard forecasts and the use of volcanic alert levels. Journal of Applied Volcanology 6(1): 13. https://appliedvolc.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s13617-017-0064-7 

Potter, S. H., Scott, B. J., Fearnley, C. J., Leonard, G. S., Gregg, C. E. (2017). Challenges and benefits of standardising Early Warning Systems: A case study of New Zealand's Volcanic Alert Level System. In Observing the Volcano World: Volcanic Crisis Communication. C. J. Fearnley, D. Bird, G. Jolly, K. Haynes and B. McGuire, Springer: 350. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/11157_2017_18.pdf

Potter, S. H. (2014). Communicating the status of volcanic activity in New Zealand, with specific application to caldera unrest. Ph.D. thesis. Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand. http://mro.massey.ac.nz/handle/10179/5654 

Potter, S. H., Jolly, G. E., Neall, V. E., Johnston, D. M., Scott, B. J. (2014). Communicating the status of volcanic activity: Revising New Zealand's volcanic alert level system. Journal of Applied Volcanology 3(13). http://www.appliedvolc.com/content/pdf/s13617-014-0013-7.pdf 

Winson, A. E. G., Costa, F., Newhall, C. G., Woo, G. (2014). An analysis of the issuance of volcanic alert levels during volcanic crises. Journal of Applied Volcanology, vol. 3. https://appliedvolc.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s13617-014-0014-6